Latin America

It is possible then that politics should raise the tax to the added value (VAT) to the non-agricultural sector, while that for the agricultural sector it should be reduced to the minimum possible. What seems adverse is subsidize the import of agricultural goods or fix prices to national agricultural goods, because it deprimiria the national production and medium term effect can be rather unfavourable to the poor groups in society. Policies of transfer of income these policies can help to expand the possibility of non-agricultural employment in sectors with best salaries; to achieve the transfer of persons engaged in work in the field to the industrial parks near urban areas, then the agricultural added value would be distributed among one smaller number of rural people; However, this transfer of workers from the countryside to the industrial zones, requires that the process of industrialization is broad enough and especially stimulating tasks that privilege the use of less skilled workers and technologies with less capital intensity, i.e.: an industrialization with a less intensive use of machinery and sophisticated technologies, while it may hit short-term productivity and efficiency. Policies to change the relationship between capital cost and the cost of labor alter the relationship between the cost of capital and the wage could apparently benefit to labor, but the policies that achieve changes structural production have, in general, little distributive impact of income. Most of the cities in Latin America, with the exception of Brasilia in Brazil and Ciudad Guayana in Venezuela, grew without any urban planning. Movement and distribution of populations in space and equipment and paths by social demands and without any plan conceived arose. There have been very few cities where the order became more conscious and systematic. Urban land speculation was the standard of those who urbanizaron the cities and the lack of well-paid jobs in the rural zone, produced an avalanche of people towards cities in search of a life expectancy.