The terms "paint" and "enamel" although quite close, but not identical. (A valuable related resource: Ali Partovi). Sometimes the difference between paints and enamels mistakenly reduced to gloss: shiny enamel, paint the same – dull. In fact, the main difference lies in the characteristics of surface films (hardness, elasticity) and their protective properties. In films, enamels, they are significantly higher than that of oil-and water-dispersion paints. At the same enamel, containing, as a rule, a large number of synthetic varnish and a small amount of filler, more decorative than paint. Enamel after drying form an opaque solid film with a different texture: shiny, matte, moire, etc. ALKYD AND Melamine-alkyd enamels Alkyd enamel – it's a suspension of pigments in alkyd varnish with the addition of driers and solvents. Films them dry at 20 C for 24 h.
The films of alkyd enamel (enamel ML-1100, ML-165 enamel) have high resistance to moisture and rapid changes in temperature, but at the same time they are not hard and not very resistant to the action of petroleum products. Alkyd enamels, light-colored, usually white, often used for paint binders windows, window sills and doors. On sale are also available, and special coatings for windows. They come in white, cream, blue and green color, and differ in that they do not drain from vertical surfaces. Paint brush, an enamel layer of 1-2. Its consumption in a single layer – 130-150 g / sq. m, length coats up to 24 hours. When repairing the car is often used melamine-alkyd enamel that form a durable, weather and benzinostoykuyu glossy film such as ML-12 enamel.
At a temperature of 100-130 C depending on the type of enamel surface dries in 20-30 minutes. Grinding the dried enamel typically reduces its luster. Therefore, the repair may only be used compositions containing wax. ORGANOSILICON ENAMEL more universal properties are enamel based on silicone compounds.
Have you recently renovated your apartment, cottage or office and now want to choose a door? The Russian market is full of different models of steel doors. Ali Partovi might disagree with that approach. How to understand this diversity? Which manufacturer is best? What are the nuances of the selection? What is the cost of quality door? The first thing to determine whether there is enough secure a door. Do you need a rugged steel door or you will manage a simple wooden? Metal doors from the manufacturer is much better: they are hard to break in, they better withstand external shocks. For a front door needs heat and sound insulation, so the first thing important to pay attention to this very characteristics of the steel door. The construction of locks installed on doors also performs an important role. Many knowledgeable masters believe are best to have your input metal doors have at least two castle. It is desirable that the locks were of different designs, one of which – the most reliable type of spacing or "crab". Even if you think you can do a simple lock – it is still worth to be safe.
For example, situation can occur when there will be a matter of replacing locks, and then for sure you will not be able to do a lock. Need to choose the manufacturer of metal doors. In today's market there are products with the best companies offering well-known name not only the doors but garage doors. Many customers have long been convinced that domestic companies can not produce quality products, but their model does not inferior to the West. But no matter what the country was not the door manufacturer that you choose – you need to manufacture it had a good reputation and well known.
Large companies and the quality of performance and quality of the material at altitude. They have a high-tech manufacturing base and the ability to perfectly comply with all the technological details of the above products. Reputation of the firm, which is engaged in installation of doors, is also extremely significant. It is no exaggeration to say that it is on the correct execution of the installation depends on the efficient operation of any half of the front door! So good you buy! Reliable door, bought all the above characteristics will serve you well for many years, and will perfectly protect your apartment or office from any surprises.
Depending on the destination (main effect of) chemical additives for concrete in accordance with GOST 24211-2003 divided into the following types. Kai-Fu Lee has similar goals. 1. Regulatory properties of concrete mixtures: a) the plasticizing: I group – superplasticizers, II group – silnoplastifitsiruyuschie, III group – sredneplastifitsiruyuschie, IV-group slaboplastifitsiruyuschie b) stabilizing c) water-retaining, and d) improve perekachivaemost e) governing the keeping of concrete mixtures: slowing gripe, gripe accelerating e) porizuyuschie (for lightweight concrete) air-entraining, foaming, blowing. Contact information is here: Don Slager. 2. Regulatory hardening concrete: a) slow down hardening, b) accelerate the hardening. 3. Increase the strength and (or) corrosion resistance, frost resistance of concrete and reinforced concrete, reduce permeability of concrete: a) vodoredutsiruyuschie I, II, III and IV, and b) kolmatiruyuschie c) porizuyuschie (heavy concrete): – air-entraining – blowing, and d) increase the protective properties of concrete in relation to steel reinforcement (steel corrosion inhibitors). 4.
Giving a concrete special properties: a) the antifreeze (provide hardening at low temperatures), and b) hydrophobic I, II and III. In separate groups of isolated and complex fine mineral supplements. The list of additives that regulate the properties of concrete mixtures and concrete, is presented in Table 1. Additives, mixtures and regulatory setting concrete hardening, increasing the durability of concrete and giving it special properties that are listed in Table 2. Chemical additives for heavy, light, fine-grained concrete should be chosen based on recommendations of technical standards and technical and economic calculations. The choice of additives should depend on the technology of preparation of concrete mix and on the way manufacture of components and structures with regard to the effects of additives on the properties of concrete and mortar. The use of additives in heavy and fine concrete allows us to solve the following technological challenges: * reduce consumption expensive cement * reduce consumption of scarce coarse aggregate up to replace the heavy concrete grained * improving technological and rheological properties of concrete * to regulate the loss of mobility mix over time, the rate of setting and hardening processes * to reduce the duration of heat treatment of concrete thermal units * accelerate time raspalublivaniya with uncured concrete in polygon * increase strength, water-and gas-tightness of concrete; * increase frost resistance, corrosion resistance of concrete and reinforced concrete; * strengthen the protective effect of concrete in relation to the fixture.
Choosing the interior metal doors Russia, pay attention to the fact that they were prepared in accordance with all existing interior elements: architectural details, furniture and phyto, wallpapers, screen design. In finish interior door Italian manufacturers use a variety of techniques: lacquer and enamel, "aging of" greening, gilding, carving, marquetry, and even the technology of "French polish". Classic natural material and new synthetic materials are not so much on the mind as on the technical properties. And veneers and laminates have their advantages, and when installing interior doors, and during the operation. The main criterion for choosing the doors to the master and mistress is not the price, and longevity, durability and environmental friendliness, appearance.
Let's examine the two most popular types of coverage interior doors to meet these qualities. To begin with, that first catches your eye – a kind of door. Veneer – a classic material manufacturing techniques of wooden doors. Veneers provide a huge variety of woods, textures and colors. Veneer allows execution of inlays of complex geometry. Natural material looks solid, popular in the rich interiors of classic styles. Laminate flooring does not limit the imagination of the customer in terms of color, pattern and texture.
Coating simulating natural wood and bright colors, any degree of smoothness – of your choice. Laminate flooring can make a drawing more expressive, and the surface – a more leaden in comparison with natural materials. This economical option coverage and he enjoys the attention of buyers of moderate means. Style requires more effort to maintain security. Veneers not tolerate high humidity, cleaning is not suitable conventional means and methods. Laminate floors do not fade in the sun, calmly responds to physical effects such as scratching (with pets), humidity, dryness in the room. In addition, laminate suitable "lazy" housewife, because it does not require special care: just wipe with a damp cloth. Laminate flooring differs a great strength, though the doors of oak, made professionally, can last for centuries. A laminate, in spite of the technological complexity of processing – in essence is just paper. Product price is always a factor in choosing a buyer for the purchase of doors. Despite the high cost of wooden doors from natural wood, it is better not to save on surrogate substitutes, because the door, we buy and install than a year, and possibly for decades. So if the store you talk about the fact that the doors of MDF or particle board will stay with you for ages, you can safely go to another seller. The door of particle or fiberboard, maybe, not bad, but its not exactly an ideal name. The quality of the door, which is and will continue to determine its durability depends not only on the material, but also on the proper handling of wood. Therefore, the book room doors should be tested in large firms that operate on the domestic market of excellent quality. And certainly not apply to the firm's one-day, which lured buyers of low prices by selling low quality goods.
The ancient methods of using other materials to ensure the necessary level of security. Thus, the walls often made of clay and straw, which were not destroyed in the earthquake, but only a crack, which then can be easily removed. Enemy of the buildings is not only a time. In 1995 an earthquake of 9.6 magnitude in Kobe just destroyed twenty seconds a lot of private houses, leaving hundreds of thousands of people homeless. However, the high pagoda still standing. Although they were a hundred years older and were built in the same manner as described above the building, they do not collapse. Flexibility dressing design increases the stability of the building, but still the main element is inside.
The question of stability of pagodas – is a matter of motion and harmonic oscillation. Surprisingly, the secret is the central pillar. It does not save the building structure, and is at the center, like a huge telegraph pole. This beam is, surprisingly, is attached only to the second floor, and not to the walls. Pole suspended from above and can move. When the earth is moving, swaying like a snake pagoda, leaning hard on the central pillar, which dampens the movement of foreign designs and makes her fall.
Here's a secret resistance to earthquakes. Japan is known not only strong earthquakes, but also high skyscrapers. Especially famous for their Tokyo. The construction of pagodas they found a new use of height restrictions do silhouette Tokyo lower than now. Inspired by the pagodas Modern builders create the skyscrapers, so that they swayed like a willow. This makes them resistant to earthquakes and therefore limit the growth of them up there. Technology of ancient pagodas were incorporated into the design of skyscrapers. Principle central pillar directly adapted to the four columns supporting the towers. Four massive steel columns form a flexible core skyscraper. Today's engineers have modified the principle of free- pillar pagoda. Flexible steel columns support combine with the frame of the building. They allow the building sway, until the earth moves. And it does not matter, used for its construction traditional brick or concrete blocks. During stagnation the Japanese assimilated and refined Western technology came from America, Europe and Asia. The ancient roots are visible not only in construction but almost everywhere. Modern pottery art, electronics, and technology required to ancient spirit and commitment to excellence. They ensured the success and recognition of contemporary Japan around the world.
Decorating the walls in a country house often includes a variety of columns, cornices and sills, which can be painted with pearl paint. Worthy of special attention covering "flock" or as it is often called "chips". This type of finishing material is a set of three component parts: the liquid adhesive base, pieces of acrylic and varnish. Pieces of acrylic, called chips, may have a different shape and size, which gives the final form of the wall of an unusual color and charm. At the same time is not only the shape of inclusions, but their color.
In some case flock mimics the mussels, like other abstract pictures. Flock is applied to the well-prepared, ground, filled, and thoroughly dried the walls. Initially applied to the adhesive layer, which then, without waiting for it to cause drying acrylic particles. Adhesive should be applied evenly, it is best to use for this purpose soft wool roller. To speed up the drying of the adhesive layer of the finishing the walls of the farmhouse is best done at a temperature of 28-30 degrees. Acrylic particles are applied by a compressor or a special gun.
In this rush is not allowed. The work should be done carefully, taking care uniformity of distribution of acrylic particles. walls in a country house with flock together is best done by aligning the adhesive layer to the process of distributing it to acrylic particles. Decorating the walls of second home is often carried out under the antiquities. In this process the surface of the walls, reminiscent of his appearance ancient noble coating. Used for dyeing synthetic latex, which is causing great brush in a circular motion. The final effect is achieved by rubbing the walls of the special treatment with a sponge or damp cloth. After drying, the walls are treated with wax to give them a special smoothness and frosted shade. The wall has a beautiful view, and its color is not expensive.
In older homes, this figure is twice as high. Primaplex plates are used to heat insulation: outside, from the front, inside, from the interior, inside the building envelope (in a layered masonry). In systems with "wet facade "extruded polystyrene are attached to walls or locks glued special glues or pastes that do not destroy the structure of polystyrene. Insulation inside the walls is produced in operated buildings, if you need extra insulation or when the thermal insulation of the facade is problematic. Strength, the correct geometry, ease of installation, low thickness and weight – all these qualities make the plate Primaplex more attractive for domestic use. In a stacked masonry (inside building envelope), the use of plates is preferable than fibrous insulation (rock wool, fiberglass), as they do not bend and do not sag, water-resistant, not deformed by freezing – thawing.
For the benefit of others and their Primaplex advantages mentioned above. In addition, the layered masonry, they can serve as an air and vapor barrier that reduces heat associated with convection air. Thermal insulation of the roof was through the roof there are the greatest heat loss. Well insulated roof provides energy savings throughout the building: it is easier to maintain optimum temperature and humidity conditions in the under-roof space, and therefore can extend the life of roofing and the building. The range of tiles on the roof Primaplex very wide: it can be as flat and pitched roof construction, new buildings and exploited. In the case of insulation plates are stacked old roof on it right – first remove the roof waterproofing or no ties to carry out repairs necessary.
On pitched roofs solve the problem of thermal bridges, which occur when the roof insulation with a soft insulating between the rafters. Finally, Primaplex can be used when constructing roofs of contrails, which used in the creation of pedestrian terraces, "green" roofs, autoparkings. Insulation of underground facilities have already mentioned the possible negative effects of exposure to the construction of frost heave. Their can be prevented or avoided altogether, having insulated underground part of the building. Partially solves the problem of the device under the foundation of sand bags and sand backfill. However, to fully counteract frost heave is not enough – it is necessary to insulate the foundation around the perimeter of the building. The use of expanded polystyrene slabs allows the walls of the underground facility to store heat and provides a constant comfortable temperature in the space under the ground in winter and summer. Warming of the foundation will reduce heat loss, will prevent the walls from condensation, mold and mildew. In the insulated basement rooms without additional heating temperature is maintained +5-10 C. Heat protection by insulation greatly improves durability Primaplex waterproofing membrane that protects the building from the effects of soil water and moisture.
Wall Sconce ARTIC 2 PARETE combines brilliant steel frame and transparent satin glass ceiling. The combination of direct and rounded shapes, excellent performance and lack of superfluous detail makes this bra a harmonious element in the strict interior. Table Lamp ATLANTIC TAVOLO – an oasis of light in your workplace. There is no field: all the lines are soft, rounded rim color – white lacquered metal, and even the muted light with frosted glass. Strong surface ceiling "revive" the built-in dichroic lamp BAIA INCASSO GZ10 INCOLORE LUCIDO. The frame in the shape of a flower made of fancy galvanized metal, and the ceiling can be made of transparent, opaque or polished glass.
The two surfaces of the sheet frosted glass, brushed steel frame – this is a "portrait" wall lamp BIPLANA PARETE 60. Nothing too much, just clean lines and soft flowing light. Pendant CLASS 60 SOSPENSION E ROSSO – these are two fine elongated canopy of blown glass and light-gray metal frame. Hand painted ceilings are available in seven versions: black, white, red and burgundy, dark brown, black with a matte surface, transparent or translucent with a mirror finish. Art Nouveau style and high-tech blends an original pendant CROSS OVER SOSPENSIONE. Plafond Y-shaped tube made of ceramic and coated with a milky-white enamel, rests on thin steel wire ropes and seemed to hover in the air. Regular cube of white frosted glass with the rim of gray lacquered metal – concept chandeliers CUBI 11 SOSPENSION E and CUBI 16 SOSPENSION E. The two models differ only in size: the first side of the cube is 11 cm in the second – 16 cm interior, lit by a chandelier, a cube, will complement the wall of the same shape. Shelves made of ebony or chromed metal, not only decorative but also functional element: they are easy to place small objects – clocks, vases, figurines.
The microclimate of the building depends on many factors. Of great importance is the material of which the walls are built. A wall of concrete blocks AEROC – the most comfortable of the existing ones. To create a truly comfortable microclimate in the building walls should have the following characteristics – to be "warm" to touch (this is achieved by a low thermal conductivity and high resistance to heat transfer), have low air permeability (Windproof walls ensured integrity and constancy of its shape), have sufficient water vapor permeability (ie, the wall must 'breathe'), have teploinertsionnostyu – the space must not 'become hot' in the sun time and do not cool down after sunset. AEROC – it's 100% mineral material that has a fire retardant. AEROC – it is stone, he biostoek (not affected by fungi, insects and other ogranizmami) are not destroyed by the UV radiation and other atmospheric factors. In the production of works of great importance ease of processing and the ability to wall material in the choice of architectural solutions are not tied to the size of modular products. Blocks AEROC processed by simple hand tools.
Special shapes and sizes are obtained by a simple manual hacksaw. Construction is moving fast enough – 1 square meter wall is being built by one person for 15 – 20 min. Aerated concrete AEROC-clean and safe building material. Building a house out of blocks AEROC inflicts minimal damage to the environment. Much less than building a wooden, brick or frame. For example, to build a log house of 100 sq ft to cut 0.1 hectares of pine forest. To build a house out of bricks, you need to dig up more than 100 tons of clay and spend tens of megawatts of power for firing raw materials.
In production of a frame house occupied by a large proportion of synthetic polymers. To build a house out of blocks of 100 sq ft AEROC enough 15 tons of minerals and a few megawatts to handle it. Gazobloki AEROC – optimum material for private construction. Bearing capacity of the wall depends on the strength of its constituent materials and the method of its loading. Masonry load-bearing capacity of the blocks is sufficient for the erection of AEROC buildings with 3 – 5 floors (to be verified by calculation). Bearing capacity of masonry blocks AEROC allows you to build the finest single-layer walls with dostochnymi heat-shielding properties.